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Acetone

Acetone

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Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.[12] It is a colorless, volatile, flammable liquid, and is the simplest and smallest ketone.

Acetone is miscible with water and serves as an important solvent in its own right, typically for cleaning purposes in laboratories. About 6.7 million tonnes were produced worldwide in 2010, mainly for use as a solvent and production of methyl methacrylate and bisphenol A.[13][14] It is a common building block in organic chemistry. Familiar household uses of acetone are as the active ingredient in nail polish remover, and as paint thinner.

Acetone is produced and disposed of in the human body through normal metabolic processes. It is normally present in blood and urine. People with diabetes produce it in larger amounts. Reproductive toxicity tests show that it has low potential to cause reproductive problems. Pregnant women, nursing mothers and children have higher levels of acetone.[15] Ketogenic diets that increase ketones (acetone, β-hydroxybutyric acid and acetoacetic acid) in the blood are used to counter epileptic attacks in infants and children who suffer from recalcitrant refractory epilepsy.

Properties

Chemical formula

C3H6O

Molar mass

58.08 g·mol−1

Appearance

Colorless liquid

Odor

Pungent, irritating, floral, cucumber like

Density

0.7845 g/cm3 (25 °C)

Melting point

94.7 °C (−138.5 °F; 178.5 K)[9]

Boiling point

56.05 °C (132.89 °F; 329.20 K)[9]

Solubility in water

Miscible

Solubility

Miscible in benzene, diethyl ether, methanol, chloroform, ethanol[7]

log P

0.042

Vapor pressure

  • 9.39 kPa (0 °C)

  • 30.6 kPa (25 °C)

  • 374 kPa (100 °C)

  • 2.8 MPa (200 °C)[8]

Acidity (pKa)

19.2

Basicity (pKb)

5.2 (for conjugate base)

Magnetic susceptibility (χ)

33.78·10−6 cm3/mol

Refractive index (nD)

1.3588 (VD = 54.46)

Viscosity

0.295 mPa·s (25 °C)[7]